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CASPR to Reduce Bioburden in Ambulances

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Currently in the US, both employee and patient safety are key issues in medical

systems, extending beyond the walls of medical facilities to ambulances. In a

limited space, employees perform patient care, often under extreme time

pressure, within a small vehicle moving at high speed. In ambulances, both

employees and patients can be exposed to potentially infectious agents during

transport in the vehicle, with a higher risk of healthcare-associated infections

(HAIs), from the enclosed space of an ambulance. While risks of emergency

medical service (EMS) workers are well-documented, data about patient risk in

ambulances are not available. Therefore, adoption of methods to improve

occupational safety for the EMS workforce, while ensuring patient safety, is


CASPR was installed and tested against ambulances that were only subject to their

standard protocols for disinfecting. CASPR stands for “continuous air and surface

pathogen reduction” and is a low-maintenance natural catalytic converter that

generates powerful oxidizers, including gaseous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from

molecular oxygen and humidity of the ambient air and disburses low concentrations

of oxidizers into the environment. The oxidizing molecules decompose pathogens in

the air and on surfaces. The concentrations of those oxidizers are highly effective in

reducing the bioburden, while safe for environments occupied by people and

equipment of all kinds. CASPR is a novel technology for reducing bioburden in the air

and on environmental surfaces.

Claro published an article in the American Journal of Infection Control that

identified the threshold for a safe medical environment that reduces HAIs is equal

to or below 2.5 CFU/cm2. The average for all locations on the CASPR test unit was

0.35 CFU/cm2, which is 86% below the threshold. This study validates prior

testing of the effectiveness of the use of CASPR to reduce bioburden on

environmental surfaces in the ambulance tested. The average for all locations on

the two control units was 7.72 CFU/cm2, which is 209% above the threshold.


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